Detection of Dengue Virus among Children with Suspected Malaria
A research conducted by a group of researchers at the West Africa Centre of Cell Biology and Infectious Pathogens (WACCBIP) at Legon and Nougochi Medical Institute, found two children in Accra reporting to the LEKMA Hospital in Teshie Ledzokuku Krowor Municipal Assembly, to have dengue fever virus serotype 2, which was reported in a 2016 outbreak in Burkina Faso.
Dengue fever is a painful, debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by any one of four closely related dengue viruses.
The viruses are related to the viruses that cause West Nile infection and yellow fever.
The research, titled “Detection of Dengue Virus among Children with Suspected Malaria, Accra, Ghana” sort to obtain a description of the pathogens causing febrile illnesses in Ghana.
The researchers chose a hospital-based cross-sectional study among children between the ages of 1-15 years, in Kintampo, in the Brong Ahafo region, with a population of 42,957 and Teshie in the Greater Accra region that has 171,875 residents.
The attending clinicians at the 2 sites screened a total of 10,234 children, and 700 were enrolled for the study on the basis of the inclusion criteria and two out of the 700 had dengue virus serotype 2.
The Director of WACCBIP, Prof. Gordon Awandare, told Adom News that though the children are now fine after further treatment, there is a cause for Ghana to be alert as more of such cases may be occurring in other hospitals since they present the same symptoms as Malaria and other infectious diseases.
He insists dengue fever should now be in the picture for testing at hospitals and also be absorbed by the National Health Insurance Scheme.
“…they looked like they had malaria when they came to the hospital, but further testing showed the two had Dengue virus. Though the children are now fine; there will be the need for alertness and inclusion of dengue testing in the hospitals and the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health must champion this and put measure in place to increase surveillance in the hospitals”, he said.
Prof Gordon Awandare also expressed worry about the Ministry of Health (MoH) and the Ghana Health Service (GHS) not taking the findings serious even though it has brought to their notice months back.
He wants the MoH and GHS to take the findings seriously.
“Policymakers must engage more with research centres and take information serious rather than the delay tactics; it has been more than six months these findings were made available to them and they still have not responded”, he noted.
What you need to know about Dengue Fever
Dengue (DENG-gey) fever is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes a high fever, rash, and muscle and joint pain. A severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause severe bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) and death.
Millions of cases of dengue infection occur worldwide each year. Dengue fever is most common in Southeast Asia and the western Pacific islands, but the disease has been increasing rapidly in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Researchers are working on dengue fever vaccines. For now, the best prevention is to reduce mosquito habitat in areas where dengue fever is common.
Many people, especially children and teens, may experience no signs or symptoms during a mild case of dengue fever. When symptoms do occur, they usually begin four to seven days after you are bitten by an infected mosquito.
Dengue fever causes a high fever — 104 F degrees — and at least two of the following symptoms:
- Muscle, bone and joint pain
- Pain behind the eyes
- Swollen glands
Most people recover within a week or so. In some cases, symptoms worsen and can become life-threatening. Blood vessels often become damaged and leaky. And the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your bloodstream drops. This can cause a severe form of dengue fever, called dengue hemorrhagic fever, severe dengue or dengue shock syndrome.
Signs and symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever or severe dengue — a life-threatening emergency — include:
- Severe abdominal pain
- Persistent vomiting
- Bleeding from your gums or nose
- Blood in your urine, stools or vomit
- Bleeding under the skin, which might look like bruising
- Difficult or rapid breathing
- Cold or clammy skin (shock)
- Irritability or restlessness
When to see a doctor
Go to the nearest hospital if you’ve recently visited a region in which dengue fever is known to occur and you develop emergency symptoms, such as severe abdominal pain, vomiting, difficulty breathing, or blood in your nose, gums, vomit or stools.
If you develop a fever and milder symptoms common to dengue fever, call your doctor.
Dengue fever is caused by any one of four types of dengue viruses spread by mosquitoes that thrive in and near human lodgings. When a mosquito bites a person infected with a dengue virus, the virus enters the mosquito. When the infected mosquito then bites another person, the virus enters that person’s bloodstream.
After you’ve recovered from dengue fever, you have immunity to the type of virus that infected you — but not to the other three dengue fever virus types. The risk of developing severe dengue fever, also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, actually increases if you’re infected a second, third or fourth time.
Factors that put you at greater risk of developing dengue fever or a more severe form of the disease include:
- Living or traveling in tropical areas. Being in tropical and subtropical areas increases your risk of exposure to the virus that causes dengue fever. Especially high-risk areas are Southeast Asia, the western Pacific islands, Latin America and the Caribbean.
- Prior infection with a dengue fever virus. Previous infection with a dengue fever virus increases your risk of having severe symptoms if you’re infected again.
If severe, dengue fever can damage the lungs, liver or heart. Blood pressure can drop to dangerous levels, causing shock and, in some cases, death.
One dengue fever vaccine, Dengvaxia, is currently approved for use in those ages 9 to 45 who live in areas with a high incidence of dengue fever. The vaccine is given in three doses over the course of 12 months. Dengvaxia prevents dengue infections slightly more than half the time.
The vaccine is approved only for older children because younger vaccinated children appear to be at increased risk of severe dengue fever and hospitalization two years after receiving the vaccine.
The World Health Organization stresses that the vaccine is not an effective tool, on its own, to reduce dengue fever in areas where the illness is common. Controlling the mosquito population and human exposure is still the most critical part of prevention efforts.
So for now, if you’re living or traveling in an area where dengue fever is known to be, the best way to avoid dengue fever is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes that carry the disease.
If you are living or traveling in tropical areas where dengue fever is common, these tips may help reduce your risk of mosquito bites:
- Stay in air-conditioned or well-screened housing. The mosquitoes that carry the dengue viruses are most active from dawn to dusk, but they can also bite at night.
- Wear protective clothing. When you go into mosquito-infested areas, wear a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks, and shoes.
- Use mosquito repellent. Permethrin can be applied to your clothing, shoes, camping gear and bed netting. You can also buy clothing made with permethrin already in it. For your skin, use a repellent containing at least a 10 percent concentration of DEET.
- Reduce mosquito habitat. The mosquitoes that carry the dengue virus typically live in and around houses, breeding in standing water that can collect in such things as used automobile tires. You can help lower mosquito populations by eliminating habitats where they lay their eggs. At least once a week, empty and clean containers that hold standing water, such as planting containers, animal dishes and flower vases. Keep standing water containers covered between cleanings.